By the end of this module you should be able to:
- describe the structure of the basal ganglia and their
- identify their role in neuropsychiatric disorders and their
unique links with cerebral processes
- describe basal ganglia loops and nigrostriatal projections
- identify the specific functions and clinical significance of
basal ganglia loops
- describe specific neuropsychiatric disorders related to the
basal ganglia, including Parkinson’s disease, atypical
parkinsonism, Huntingdon disease, Tourette’s syndrome, PANDAS
and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
The basal ganglia are 'large subcortical nuclear masses'
(Ring & Serra-Mestres,
2002) forming a vastly interconnected network with other brain
These subcortical nuclei are traditionally
considered to be part of a 'motor control system'. They
have also been associated with behavioural and emotional
functions and it is widely recognised that malfunctions
in this area can manifest into a variety of
neuropsychiatric symptoms and disorders.
We recommend that you make some notes as you work through
The 'TrOn Notebook' facility can be accessed
throughout the module (allowing you to make notes on each page),
and these notes will be saved in your personal area 'My TrOn', for
future reference. However, you will not be able to print these
notes as one single document.
If you would prefer to make your notes in a
separate document you may wish to download the 'learning notes'
below. This downloadable Word document will allow you to keep a
personalised record of your learning, which you can then save
and/or print for future reference.
learning notes document for this module